Options Available to Help Prevent the Spread of HIV

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HIV Testing

Nearly 40% of new HIV infections are transmitted by people who don’t know they have the virus. Testing for HIV can reduce transmission and early diagnosis can improve medical outcomes. HIV screening is recommended for all adolescents and adults 13 to 64 years of age.1

CDC HIV Nexus Clinician Resources Benefits of Routine Screening


Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis

Prevention that is used before exposure by someone without HIV using Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP).2 Individuals must be screened for HIV-1 infection and have a negative HIV-1 test to be a candidate for PrEP.




National Clinician Consultation Center: PrEP

As new PrEP products are approved by FDA, please be aware there may be a delay in resources and guideline updates


Treatment as Prevention

Prevention used before HIV exposure by someone living with HIV using Treatment as Prevention (TasP) to reduce their viral load to undetectable thus preventing HIV transmission to an uninfected partner.  This strategy of prevention is also known as Undetectable = Untransmittable (U=U).3, 4

CDC Resource: Prevention for persons with HIV

National Clinician Consultation Center: HIV/AIDS Management


Post-Exposure Prophylaxis

Prevention used in emergencies by someone without HIV within 72 hours after HIV exposure by using Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP).5,6

CDC Resource: Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)

National Clinician Consultation Center: PEP


Syringe Service Programs for Those Who Inject Drugs

Prevention during potential injection drug use exposure by never sharing equipment, using syringe service programs (SSPs) where available, or cleaning equipment if it is shared.7-9

CDC Resource: Injection drug use


HIV Treatment During Pregnancy

Prevention of perinatal exposure by child-bearing people living with HIV taking treatment throughout pregnancy as prescribed.10,11

CDC Resource: Nonsexual transmission

National Clinician Consultation Center: Perinatal HIV/AIDS

More Prevention Options

Prevention during potential sexual exposure by choosing activities with lower likelihood of transmission and by using barrier methods (condoms or dental dams) the right way every time.12,13

CDC Risk and Prevention: Condoms

CDC Risk Behaviors: HIV Risk Behaviors



  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Benefits of routine screening. Updated March 15, 2021. Accessed October 13, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/clinicians/screening/
  2. National Clinician Consultation Center. PrEP: Pre-exposure prophylaxis. Accessed October 13, 2021. https://nccc.ucsf.edu/clinician-consultation/prep-pre-exposure-prophylaxis/
  3. CDC. Prevention for persons with HIV. Updated October 22, 2019. Accessed October 13, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/clinicians/treatment/partner-prevention.html
  4. National Clinician Consultation Center. HIV/AIDS management. Accessed October 13, 2021. https://nccc.ucsf.edu/clinician-consultation/hiv-aids-management/
  5. CDC. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Updated May 13, 2020. Accessed October 13, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/hivnexus/hcp/pep/index.html
  6. National Clinician Consultation Center. PEP: Post-exposure prophylaxis. Accessed October 13, 2021. https://nccc.ucsf.edu/clinician-consultation/pep-post-exposure-prophylaxis/
  7. CDC. Syringe services programs (SSPs). Updated May 23, 2019. Accessed October 13, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/ssp/index.html
  8. CDC. How to clean your syringes. June 2021. October 13, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/library/consumer-info-sheets/cdc-hiv-consumer-info-sheet-cleaning-syringes.pdf
  9. CDC. Protect yourself if you inject drugs. Updated April 21, 2021. Accessed October 13, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/drugs/index.html
  10. CDC. Non-sexual transmission: HIV screening during pregnancy and labor/delivery. Updated February 26, 2020. Accessed October 13, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/clinicians/prevention/nonsexual-hiv-transmission.html
  11. National Clinician Consultation Center. Perinatal HIV/AIDS. Accessed October 13, 2021. https://nccc.ucsf.edu/clinician-consultation/perinatal-hiv-aids/
  12. CDC. Condoms. Published November 8, 2019. Accessed October 25, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/condoms.html
  13. CDC. HIV Risk Behaviors. Published November 13, 2019. Accessed October 25, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/estimates/riskbehaviors.html

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